The geography of Ireland comprises relatively low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland. Its lush Ireland is known for its wide expanses of lush, green fields. In fact, its nickname is the Emerald Isle. But there are also large areas of rugged, rocky landscape. About 15,000 years ago, Ireland was completely covered by thick glaciers. The Emerald Isle is studded with romantic castle ruins, mysterious stone circles, and megaliths galore. The countryside in Ireland is unique and unparalleled. With more sheep than people and one thousand shades of vivid green, Ireland is a feast for the senses. Spenser’s A View of the Present State of Ireland (written 1595–96, published 1633), a later tract, argues lucidly for a typically 16th-century theory of rule: firm measures, ruthlessly applied, with gentleness only for completely submissive subject populations. Ireland is famous for its scenic coastlines, towns, and villages along the shoreline. Most of these coastline towns are located in the west of Ireland, mainly in the province of Munster. That’s where we live in Limerick! The most famous landmarks in Ireland are the Cliffs of Moher. Ireland is a place to visit not only for its beauty and history, but because of its lively atmosphere. The Irish are known worldwide for their festive celebration and the country hosts many events and festivals along the year. This includes the TradFest held in Dublin every January. Popular culture in Ireland is very similar to many other Western countries in terms of TV, cinema and popular music and literature. However, one aspect of popular culture in Ireland that makes it somewhat different to other cultures is pub culture. The term ‘pub’ refers to a ‘public house’ or bar.